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QSO 500 X3399 Ethics Codes and How They are Enforced Essay
Summarize the ethical issue that you identified in your Module Eight short paper and describe how you would address the issue to comply with both legal and professional standards of practice.
post 1oria Patterson posted Mar 9, 2022 6:46 PMSubscribeHello All,In my module 8 short paper, I discussed ethical issues that could arise from informed consent in online data collection. The heart of ethical research and, indeed of research ethics scrutiny, is the attempt to balance the risk of harm against the potential for benefits that can accrue to individuals, groups, communities, organizations and even societies from research participation (Iphofen, 2018).
When it comes to informed consent, there are several difficulties. The first is that of ambiguity. As a researcher, you must be open to many interpretations. This can be a difficult task. When it comes to acquiring information, language difficulties might also be a problem.
Even while technology has given us access to a vast amount of information, people from different regions of the world do not always communicate in the same way, either verbally or in writing, as those conducting the research, therefore translations can be done erroneously or inaccurately. To avoid problems, I believe the researcher should be well-organized and request consent when necessary.
If the researcher is unsure whether or not to request consent, it is best to request a consent form to be on the safe side. To avoid harming the participants, the nature of the study, the company, or the researcher herself, it is critical to be aware of the various ethical principles and to act in accordance with them.
Depending on how you obtain your information, you can comply with obtaining informed consent in a variety of ways, both legally and professionally. Informed permission must now be documented in writing for important things like operations or medical procedures. It is, however, a fundamental ethical requirement in academic study.
Your research’s level of risk will determine how consent is documented and obtained. Participants must be given clear information, they must be given the option to withdraw from the process, sensitive information must be examined and preserved, and consent must be granted without the influence or pressure of outside influences.
Autonomy is a central value in Western medicine and medical ethics, but exactly what kind of role medicine ought to give to patients’ autonomy seems to be somewhat obscure. It is plausible that autonomous persons are often in the best position to determine what would be good and bad for them (see, e.g., Sumner (1996)) and, consequently, it is arguable that there is good reason to consider patients’ autonomy to have instrumental value in medicine (Varelius, 2006).
10-1 Discussion: Ethics and Reflection Contains unread posts James Smith posted Mar 9, 2022 9:56 AMSubscribeIn the module eight short paper, I identified three ethical issues that might arise when conducting internet-based research on patients with brain damage or traumatic brain injuries. They were informed consent, non-maleficence, and privacy and confidentiality.
I believe that informed consent was the most critical issue identified in that paper. If I were the researcher in that study, informed consent would be of great concern to me. I would need to carefully weigh the participant’s ability in this regard and the potential for the study to cause the participant further harm.
To comply with legal standards, I would need to follow the FDA guidance surrounding informed consent. Paying particular attention to things such as undue influence or coercion and using language that is understandable to the subject or their representative (Information sheet: Informed consent draft guidance for IRBs, clinical Investigators, and sponsors, 2014).
To comply with professional standards of practice, I would follow the guidelines recommended by the center for ethical practice regarding ethical standards about informed consent (Fisher, 2006). Paying particular attention to the informed consent (3.10), debriefing (8.08), and assessment (9.03) codes originally established by the APA code of ethics.
As for the class question regarding the ethical issues to consider in face-to-face interviews and surveys for those over and under the age of eighteen, here are my thoughts. Those over the age of eighteen would be of less concern to me, provided they were willing and able to provide informed consent. I would require children under the age of eighteen to provide informed consent as well as both their parents.
For very young children, those below the age of ten, I would attempt to assess their level of maturity and their ability to understand the research before interviewing them, even with parental consent. There are competing views on the use of cameras in research conducted with children.
Haggerty (2020) cites the concerns Foucault (1977/1995) raises over apparatuses of observation serving as mechanisms of surveillance and control but also cites more recent studies such as Flewitt (2006), Kind (2013), and Magnusson (2018) that feel it can be “instrumental in giving voice to children’s perspectives” (Haggerty, 2020).
My opinion is that it can be both a positive and a negative for many of the same reasons and will greatly depend upon the research subject matter as well as the maturity level of the child being interviewed.